The word translated as “potion” is the ancient Greek pharmakon, which can refer either to a medicine or a poison. These papers were written primarily by students and provide critical analysis of Phaedrus by Plato. The souls of men, however, are all burdened by the combination of a good... Phaedrus study guide contains a biography of Plato, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis. ©1995, Hackett Green Library Stacks B380 .A5 N44 1995 How can we go about trying to understand Plato, when so much--the whole history of Western philosophy--separates us from him? As Alfred Geier notes, “there is a touch of madness in Socrates here” (145). "A Survey of the Gadgets and Specialized Terms of Contemporary Talk—Talk as Reasoning—The Mediocrity of the Kept in touch with the Verbally expressed Word" Talk, Socrates proceeds, is the specialty of affecting the spirit, and in this way a speaker must know the specific characteristics of the specific soul he is attempting to impact. Similarly in the Phaedrus, Socrates shows eros to be a divine madness that a philosopher’s soul must be able to control. As such, the rhetorician must understand the souls of different audiences and speak accordingly. This art of dialectic can can only be acquired by philosophizing systematically about the nature of life and of the soul. The two Dialogues together contain the whole philosophy of Plato on the nature of love, which in the Republic and in the later writings of Plato is only introduced playfully or as a figure of speech. Essay on Phaedrus Plato Essay Phaedrus By Plato Written 360 B. C. E Translated by Benjamin Jowett Persons of the Dialogue SOCRATES PHAEDRUS. Brief Biography of Plato. The souls of men, however, all have a bad horse and will eventually fall back down to earth. What is Plato's Phaedrus and what are its major themes? Save Download. On a related note, Socrates criticizes writing essentially because it is not speech: it cannot discern between audiences and cannot respond to questions or criticism. Socrates convinces Phaedrus to share its details in a discourse. The souls of men, however, are all burdened by the combination of a good... Phaedrus study guide contains a biography of Plato, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis. In the meantime, the two have reached the plane tree. The final point of note in the introduction invokes the famous ancient Greek aphorism “Know thyself.” When Socrates claims that he has no time to explain away the myth of Boreas and Oreithuia, he invokes the inscription on the stone at Delphi: on one side is written, “Know thyself”; the other side reads “Nothing in excess.” The two sides of the stone are very close to suggesting a duality between reason and madness, or polis and apolis. Phaedrus. Pirsig received 126 rejections before an editor finally accepted the book for publication—and he did so thinking it would never generate a profit. Although Phaedrus desperately wanted to recite the speech, he feigned reluctance coyly. Moreover, his daimonion, or small demon, which we see occasionally in other dialogues, will appear to counsel him against returning prematurely to the city (242c). Phaedrus, (born c. 15 bc, Thrace—died ad 50, Italy), Roman fabulist, the first writer to Latinize whole books of fables, producing free versions in iambic metre … Extra Credit for Phaedrus. Phaedrus has just left Lysias, son of Cephalus, a well known rhetorician and his lover, who gave a speech on love. CliffsNotes on Phaedra discusses Jean Racine's tragedy about deceit, honor, and forbidden love. Indeed, Socrates’ preferred mode of discourse—the “Socratic method”—involves a series of short questions and answers known as elenchus. According to Hesiod, a great poet from around the time of Homer, Chaos was the first thing in existence, followed by Earth and Love. Phaedrus has just left Lysias, son of Cephalus, a well known rhetorician and his lover, who gave a speech on love. Not affiliated with Harvard College. Even so, once Socrates leaves the city, his touch of madness acquires a clear etiology. The first half of the Phaedrus consists of competitive speeches of seduction. Phaedrus has just left Lysias, son of Cephalus, a well known rhetorician and his lover, who gave a speech on love. He explains that Erōs is one of the primordial gods, and that the love between a boy and a lover is the greatest love that exists. Socrates concludes his speech with this argument. Only with the prospect of hearing Lysias’s speech has he been lured into stepping outside the city walls. Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance: An Inquiry into Values (ZAMM) is a book by Robert M. Pirsig first published in 1974. Since Socrates expresses a keen interest in hearing Lysias's speech, Phaedrus manages to lure him out to the countryside. INTRODUCTION. In order to understand that love is a divine and beneficial madness, Socrates likens the soul to a chariot with two horses and a charioteer. The Phaedrus is closely connected with the Symposium, and may be regarded either as introducing or following it. Historical Context of Phaedrus. And Socrates claims that he has no time to waste over such matters, since he is still unable to know himself—“and it seems ... ridiculous to look into other things before [he has] understood that” (230a). The introduction depicts both the written speech of Lysias, hidden beneath Phædrus' coat (Phædrus,228d), that he wants so hard to instill in his heart by rote, and the open "book" of nature, so inviting and yet so silent for Socrates, eager to learn about himself and finding more material for study in the men in the city (Phædrus, 230d). These papers were written primarily by students and provide critical analysis of Phaedrus by Plato. In the 10th century AD, a prose adaptation of Phaedrus' translations appeared under the title "Romulus." The company applaud the speech of Socrates, and Aristophanes is about to say something, when suddenly a band of revellers breaks into the court, and the voice of Alcibiades is heard asking for Agathon. Socrates expresses a deep appreciation for the loveliness of their natural surroundings, to which Phaedrus responds that Socrates appears “totally out of place” (230c)—for Socrates habitually stays within the city, where he can learn from people. In addition to eros and rhetoric, the Phaedrus also treats the theme of madness and thus may reveal the benefits of some excess—notwithstanding the oxymoronic nature of the phrase. Plato’s Republic treats eros as a dangerous but important part of the philosopher’s soul. Phaedrus Summary Socrates runs into Phaedrus outside Athens, who follows his exercising routine suggested by their common friend and doctor Acumenus. This short Introduction supplies a few pointers to orient readers to the rich material. Summary Phaedrus asserts that both gods and humans regard Love as great and awesome, for many reasons. Phaedrus has spent the morning listening to Lysias deliver a speech on love, and now he desires to take a walk outside the city. ... Of Phaedrus he says, "He was true to what he believed right to the end. Outside the city, Socrates will be inhabited by gods and nymphs to produce elaborate speeches of his own. Here’s a link to a summary of the dialog on wikipedia; but here’s my take on it: Phaedrus is a young man–a boy, really– a student, and not exactly the sharpest crayon in the box. He thus sets out to remedy the situation with a second speech on eros. It takes the form of a dialogue between Socrates and Phaedrus and its ostensible subject is love, especially homoerotic love. Phaedrus recounts: “Lysias argues that it is better to give your favors to someone who does not love you than to someone who does” (227c). ... and will give you a summary of the points in which the lover differed from the non-lover. See Phaedrus, Introduction. The problem of love serves as the provocation for the speeches, the content of the speeches and the reflection upon speech as a whole. The novel includes discussions of the soul, madness, divine inspiration, and practice and mastery of an art of rhetoric. Summary. He thus proposes to summarize the “general sense,” listing all the arguments in “proper order” (228d). The gods possess horses of entirely good breed and are thus able to fly in heaven eternally. Apollo says he is. But Socrates does not share Phaedrus's admiration. Socrates is an old man, a teacher, and (if we are to believe Plato) is the wisest man that has ever walked the earth. Phaedrus is widely recognized as one of Plato's most profound and beautiful works. Now, when the soul catches glimpse of a beautiful boy on earth, it is reminded of the vision of Beauty that it saw beyond the heavens. How does Plato, using integrative thinking, ultimately find a way to connect erotic love, beauty and the absolute into a unified whole? Let me begin at the beginning. Thanks for exploring this SuperSummary Study Guide of “Phaedrus” by Plato. The novel Phaedrus by Plato consists of a series of speeches that defines love as a discussion of the proper use of rhetoric. The Phaedrus is closely connected with the Symposium, and may be regarded either as introducing or following it. Since Socrates expresses a keen interest in hearing Lysias's speech, Phaedrus manages to lure him out to the countryside. Rhetoric, in fact, directs the soul. Apparently, Phaedrus and other men listened to Lysias deliver a speech on love. Although ostensibly about the topic of love, the discussion in the dialogue revolves around the art of rhetoric and how it should be practiced, and dwells on subjects as diverse as metempsychosis (the Greek tradition of reincarnation) and erotic love. Kuriyama, Taro. Phaedrus Summary. Phaedrus Plato. How does Plato, using integrative thinking, ultimately find a way to connect erotic love, beauty and the absolute into a unified whole? If the soul is strong and controls its horses, it catches sight of such true Ideas as Beauty and Self-Knowledge beyond the heavens. I come from Lysias the son of Cephalus, ... and will give you a summary of the points in which the lover differed from the non-lover. Here’s a link to a summary of the dialog on wikipedia; but here’s my take on it: Phaedrus is a young man–a boy, really– a student, and not exactly the sharpest crayon in the box. Socrates meets Phaedrus in Athens. It is a work of fictionalized autobiography, and is the first of Pirsig's texts in which he explores his " Metaphysics of Quality ". Okay, so Plato's Phaedrus isn't exactly a literary text, but you know by now that deconstructionists and poststructuralists don't give a dang about the differences between literature and philosophy. In a pederastic relationship, eros... Phaethon, a young man, travels to the Palace of the Sun to meet Apollo and find out if the sun god is in fact his father. Socrates thrives in the culture of the city—in ancient Greek, the polis. When Theuth presented writing to King Thamus of Egypt, he heralded it as a device that would increase wisdom and memory. During the Middle Ages, the collections of fables popular throughout Western Europe were most likely derived from Phaedrus. Lysias's speech argues that in a pederastic relationship, a boy should give his favors to an old man who is not in love rather than one who is in love. Socrates expresses a keen interest in hearing Lysias’s speech. The last topic of discussion between Socrates and Lysias addresses the technology of writing. The introduction depicts both the written speech of Lysias, hidden beneath Phædrus' coat (Phædrus,228d), that he wants so hard to instill in his heart by rote, and the open "book" of nature, so inviting and yet so silent for Socrates, eager to learn about himself and finding more material for study in the men in the city (Phædrus, 230d). Transition to Discussion of Rhetoric: 257b-259d, Discussion of Rhetoric, Part I: 259e-266c, Discussion of Rhetoric, Part II: 266c-274b, On the Relationship of Socrates and Plato, Loving Reflections: The Effects of Mirroring in Shakespeare’s Sonnets and Plato’s Phaedrus, A Comparison of Carr's "Is Google Making Us Stupid" and Plato's "Phaedrus", Plato’s and Smith’s Differing Epistemologies: Assessing "Phaedrus" and "Rereading Barthes and Nabokov".
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