As a dessert, it can be mashed into a purée or used as a flavoring in tong sui, ice cream, and other desserts such as Sweet Taro Pie. Growth Form: It is a clump growing aroid which can reach about 1.5 m tall. In Asia, average yields reach 12.6 t/ha (5.6 short ton/acre). It is believed that they were domesticated independently multiple times, with authors giving possible locations as New Guinea, Mainland Southeast Asia, and northeastern India, based largely on the assumed native range of the wild plants. Colocasia esculenta, commonly called taro or elephant ear, is a tuberous, stemless, frost-tender perennial of the arum family (see also calla lily and jack-in-the-pulpit) which typically grows 3 … In Turkey, Colocasia esculenta is locally known as gölevez and mainly grown on the Mediterranean coast, such as the Alanya district of Antalya Province and the Anamur district of Mersin Province. For maximum yields, the water level should be controlled so that the base of the plant is always under water. In Assam, a north-eastern state, taro is known as kosu (কচু). [39][40] Taro pollen and starch residue have also been identified in Lapita sites, dated to between 1100 BC and 550 BC. 2007. [76] Fellsmere, Florida, near the east coast, was a farming area deemed perfect for growing dasheen. Colocasia esculenta. And in the center of each leaf water gathered, like a mother’s teardrop. Hawaiians have traditionally used water irrigation systems to produce kalo. esculenta Colocasia esculenta FAMILY Araceae Elephant's Ear, Taro, Dasheen Dig deeper at SERNEC, a consortium of southeastern herbaria. The leaves are also fried in a split pea batter to make "saheena". The corm is grated into a paste and deep-fried to make a fritter called Acra. It is widely available and is eaten in many forms, either baked, boiled, or cooked into a curry with hilsa or with fermented soybeans called hawai-zaar. Species Overview. Dasheen flour was said to make excellent pancakes when mixed with wheat flour. However, the toxin can be minimized and the tuber rendered palatable by cooking,[48] or by steeping in cold water overnight. Colocasia esculenta is a perennial, tropical plant primarily grown as a root vegetable for its edible, starchy corm. It is also used to accompany meats in parrillas (barbecue) or fried cured fish where yuca is not available. [15][16] The specific epithet, esculenta, means "edible" in Latin. The crop is harvested when the plant height decreases and the leaves turn yellow. Hawaiian Kalo, Past and Future. This is due to air spaces in the petiole, which permit underwater gaseous exchange with the atmosphere. The plant is antibacterial and hypotensive. After the fall of the Roman Empire, the use of taro dwindled in Europe. Many varieties are recorded in Sri Lanka, several being edible, others being toxic to humans and therefore not cultivated. The dessert is commonly served at traditional Teochew wedding banquet dinners as the last course, marking the end of the banquet. the result is a perfect sticky rice with excellent taste. The plant has rhizomes of different shapes and sizes. Taro can be grown in paddy fields where water is abundant or in upland situations where water is supplied by rainfall or supplemental irrigation. Another common method of preparing taro is to boil, peel then slice it into 1 cm (1⁄2 in) thick slices, before frying and marinating in edible "red" sumac. Chopped leaves and petioles are mixed with Urad bean flour to make dried balls called maseura (मस्यौरा). ", "The dasheen: a tropical root crop for the South / [by W.H. The delicate gaderi (taro variety) of Kumaon, especially from Lobanj, Bageshwar district, is much sought after. For example, the newer name for a traditional Hawaiian feast (luau) comes from the kalo. The leaves and stems of certain varieties of taro are also used as a vegetable in Kerala. Taro grows abundantly in the fertile land of the Azores, as well as in creeks that are fed by mineral springs. The path can be up to 25 cm (10 in) long. Compared to potato chips, taro chips are harder and have a nuttier flavor. Considered the staple starch of traditional Polynesian cuisine, taro is both a common and prestigious food item that was first introduced to the Polynesian islands by prehistoric seafarers of Southeast Asian derivation. esculenta Schott, Caladium esculentum Hort. Its green leaves, kochu pata (কচু পাতা), and stem, kochu (কচু), are also eaten as a favorite dish and usually ground to a paste or finely chopped to make shak — but it must be boiled well beforehand. In American Chinatowns, people often use taro in Chinese cuisine, though it is not as popular as in Asian and Pacific nations. Taro is always prepared boiled. Taro is grown in the Terai and the hilly regions of Nepal. Maan Kochu is made into a paste and fried to prepare a delicious food known as Kochu Bata. Closely related to Taro (Calocasia esculenta), but with smaller corms, it is easier to grow because it is hardier than taro; can grow on lighter, poorer soils; and succeeds with less rainfall and lower temperatures[ [55], The story of kalo begins when Wakea and Papa conceived their daughter, Hoʻohokukalani. Colocasia esculenta is a tropical plant grown primarily for its edible corms, a root vegetable most commonly known as taro (/ˈtɑːroʊ, ˈtæroʊ/), or kalo (see §Names and etymology for an extensive list). In some countries, such as Trinidad and Tobago, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and Dominica, the leaves and stem of the dasheen, or taro, are most often cooked and pureed into a thick liquid called callaloo, which is served as a side dish similar to creamed spinach. Despite generally growing demand, production was even lower in 2005—only 4 million pounds, with kalo for processing into poi accounting for 97.5%. Legal Status. The stems are typically replanted in the lo`i for future kalo harvests. Colocasia esculenta. All these forms originate from Proto-Polynesian *talo,[4] which itself descended from Proto-Oceanic *talos (cf. Callaloo is sometimes prepared with crab legs, coconut milk, pumpkin, and okra. Origin: India, southeastern Asia. The Roman cookbook Apicius mentions several methods for preparing taro, including boiling, preparing with sauces, and cooking with meat or fowl. Today it is known as kolokas in Turkish or kolokasi (κολοκάσι) in Greek, which comes from the Ancient Greek name κολοκάσιον (kolokasion) for lotus root. Taro farming in the Hawaiian Islands is challenging because of the difficulties of accessing fresh water. for Chinese descendant in Indonesia, Taro is best known as perfect pair with Stewed Rice ornate with dried shrimp. A curry of taro leaves is made with mustard paste and sour sun-dried mango pulp (आमिल; aamil). In the Brazilian Portuguese of the hotter and drier Northeastern region, both inhames and carás are called batata (literally, "potato"). Another popular traditional Taiwanese snack is taro ball, served on ice or deep-fried. It is also consumed as a dessert after first being steamed and peeled, then fried in vegetable oil or lard, and finally sprinkled with sugar, cinnamon and nutmeg. After the father and daughter buried the child near their house, a kalo plant grew over the grave:[56], The stems were slender and when the wind blew they swayed and bent as though paying homage, their heart-shaped leaves shivering gracefully as in hula. The leaves of the taro plant also feature prominently in Polynesian cooking, especially as edible wrappings for dishes such as Hawaiian laulau, Fijian and Samoan palusami (wrapped around onions and coconut milk), and Tongan lupulu (wrapped corned beef). The leaves are also sauteed with onions, hot pepper and garlic til they are melted to make a dish called "bhaji". [43], It is a food staple in African, Oceanic and South Asian cultures.[25]. Although I very much dislike the common name "Elephant Ear", Colocasia esculenta is sold and grown in many parts of North America using that overly used nomer. It is made into the Korean traditional soup toranguk (토란국). Dasheen (also called "eddo") is another dryland variety of C. esculenta grown for its edible corms or as an ornamental plant. The website also provides access to a database and images of herbarium specimens found at the University of South Florida and other herbaria. Through migration to other countries, the inhame is found in the Azorean diaspora. The taro is steamed and then mashed into a thick paste, which forms the base of the dessert. Corms of the small, round variety are peeled and boiled, then sold either frozen, bagged in their own liquids, or canned. there has been renewed interest in exotic foods and consumption is increasing. Taro is the pre-eminent crop of the Cook Islands and surpasses all other crops in terms of land area devoted to production. They boil it until tender and serve it as a salad. Arum esculentum L. Arum lividum Salisb. In Uttarakhand and neighboring Nepal, taro is considered a healthy food and is cooked in a variety of ways. In the Spanish-speaking countries of the Spanish West Indies taro is called ñame, the Portuguese variant of which (inhame) is used in former Portuguese colonies where taro is still cultivated, including the Azores and Brazil. For a maximum dissolved oxygen supply, the water should be cool and flowing. Once harvested, kalo is incorporated into many foods. The loʻi is part of an ahupuaʻa, a division of land from the mountain to the sea. A lo'i specifically denotes wetland kalo growing, not dry land. The leaves of the taro plant are used to make the Trinidadian variant of the Caribbean dish known as callaloo (which is made with okra, dasheen/taro leaves, coconut milk or creme and aromatic herbs) and it is also prepared similarly to steamed spinach. It is often used as a substitute for potato. In Suriname it is called tayer, taya, pomtayer or pongtaya. Where is this species invasive in the US. dalo in Fijian) and Proto-Austronesian *tales (cf. Ala and olhu ala are still widely eaten all over the Maldives, cooked or steamed with salt to taste, and eaten with grated coconut along with chili paste and fish soup. One is called khoai môn, which is used as a filling in spring rolls, cakes, puddings and sweet soup desserts, smoothies and other desserts. As a result of this, Taro was not a part of the traditional diet due to the infertile soil and have only become a staple today through importation from other islands (Taro and Cassava cultivars are usually imported from Fiji or Samoa). Alu chya panan chi patal bhaji a lentil and colocasia leaves curry, is also popular. McDonald's sells taro-flavored pies in China. It is also an indispensable ingredient in preparing dalma, an Odia cuisine staple (vegetables cooked with dal). Cooked taro leaf has the consistency of cooked spinach and is therefore unsuitable for use as a wrapping. Dishes made of taro include saru besara (taro in mustard and garlic paste). These are all left to simmer for a few hours, and the result is a stew-like dish. Also in the north, it is known by the name bouzmet, mainly around Menieh, where it is first peeled, and left to dry in the sun for a couple of days. This is then wrapped traditionally in a banana leaf (nowadays, aluminum foil is often used) and put in the ʻumu to cook. The smaller variety of taro is more popular in the north due to its tenderness. It is used in the Cantonese dim sum to make a small plated dish called taro dumpling as well as a pan-fried dish called taro cake. The parcels are called palusami or lu'au. Colocasia esculenta, commonly called taro or elephant ear, is a tuberous, stemless, frost-tender perennial of the arum family (see also calla lily and jack-in-the-pulpit) which typically grows 3-6' tall and as wide. Then steamed and in small portions, as well as fried in the deep fryer. It is grown in a patch of land dug out to give rise to the freshwater lense beneath the soil. In northern Lebanon, it is known as a potato with the name borshoushi (el-orse borshushi). In Maharashtra, in western India, the leaves, called alu che paana, are de-veined and rolled with a paste of gram flour. It can be grown indoors with high humidity. Taro (Turkish: gölevez) is grown in the south coast of Turkey, especially in Mersin, Bozyazı, Anamur and Antalya. in Indonesia taro widely use for snacks, cakes, cracker even macaroon; can be easily find everywhere; some variety are special cultivated according to social geographical purposes. These signals are usually less distinct in flooded taro cultivation. with the addition of peeled and diced corms as thickener. A popular recipe for taro is laing from the Bicol Region; the dish's main ingredients are taro leaves (at times including stems) cooked in coconut milk, and salted with fermented shrimp or fish bagoong. The Ancient Greek word κολοκάσιον (kolokasion, lit. It is also common in Ghana to find cocoyam chips (deep-fried slices, about 1 mm (1⁄32 in) thick). Wild taro is also known as elephant’s ear. After cooking, the saponin in the soup of taro stems and leaves is reduced to a level the hogs can eat. The leaves and stalks are often traditionally preserved to be eaten in dry season as dawl rëp bai.[67][68]. Linnaeus originally described two species, Colocasia esculenta and Colocasia antiquorum, but many later botanists consider them both to be members of a single, very variable species, the correct name for which is Colocasia esculenta. <, Domesticated plants and animals of Austronesia, "Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott - Names of Plants in India", "Jimbi in English, translation, Swahili-English Dictionary", "Malanga - Spanish to English Translation | Spanish Central", "Malanga | Definición de Malanga por Oxford Dicitionaries en también significado de Malanga", "Elephant Ears (Colocasia, Alocasia, and Xanthosoma)", "The Nomenclature of the Taro and its Varieties", "Invasive Plants to Watch for in Georgia", Country profile: Samoa, New Agriculturist Online, "Genetic Diversification and Dispersal of Taro (, "Foraging-farming transitions at the Niah Caves, Sarawak, Borneo", "A Brief Note on the 2007 Excavation at Ille Cave, Palawan, the Philippines", "Direct evidence for human use of plants 28,000 years ago: starch residues on stone artefacts from the northern Solomon Islands", "Transitions to Farming in Island Southeast Asia: Archaeological, Biomolecular and Palaeoecological Perspectives", "Ancient Chamorro Agricultural Practices", "FAO: Taro cultivation in Asia and the Pacific, 1999", "Taro Cultivation in Asia and the Pacific",, "Real Estate Guide Plano – Hottest Deals On Market", "How to Make Coconut and Taro Ice Cream – A Thai Classic Dessert", "Humayunpur: A Mini North-Eastern Food Hub In Safdarjung", "Bengali style kochur loti dish, Taro stolon curry", "The Dasheen: A Root Crop for the Southern States. Plants may also be grown as pond marginals in up to 6" of standing water. In the southeastern United States, this plant is recognized as an invasive species. Taro is a popular dish in the hilly region. Arum chinense L. Arum colocasia L. Arum colocasioides Desf. In Trinidad and Tobago, it is called dasheen. In fact, the word for "food" in Urap is a compound of these two words.[60]. In Kerala, a state in southern India, taro corms are known as chembu kizhangu (ചേമ്പ് കിഴങ്ങ്) and are a staple food, a side dish, and an ingredient in various side dishes like sambar. As a staple food, it is steamed and eaten with a spicy chutney of green chilies, tamarind, and shallots. Edible varieties (kiri ala, kolakana ala, gahala, and sevel ala) are cultivated for their corms and leaves. 'Fontanesii', a purple-leaved triploid from Sri Lanka, is commonly cultivated as an ornamental. Etymology There are differences among the roots mentioned above: taro or dasheen is mostly blue when cooked, tanya is white and very dry, and eddoes are small and very slimy. Ceremonial presentations on occasion of chiefly rites or communal events (weddings, funerals, etc.) Cho, John J, Yamakawa, Roy A., and James Hollyer. A sour fried dish is made from its flower (kosu kala). It is a very common tuberous-rhizomatous herb found in wild in open and damp areas. It is known as amadumbe (plural) or idumbe (singular) in the Zulu language of Southern Africa. Taro (simplified Chinese: 芋头; traditional Chinese: 芋頭; pinyin: yùtou; Cantonese Yale: wuhtáu) is commonly used as a main course as steamed taro with or without sugar, as a substitute for other cereals, in Chinese cuisine in a variety of styles and provinces steamed, boiled or stir-fried as a main dish and as a flavor-enhancing ingredient. Nowadays taro is used more often in desserts. People usually consume its edible corm and leaves. They are the most important and the most preferred among the four, because they were less likely to contain the irritating raphides present in the other plants. The leaf buds called kosu loti (কচু লতি) are cooked with sour dried fruits and called thekera (থেকেৰা) or sometimes eaten alongside tamarind, elephant apple, a small amount of pulses, or fish. [53] Wetland-grown kalo need a constant flow of water, and to get this water, fields are usually positioned between the mauka (mountains) and makai (sea). These stems may also be sun-dried and stored for later use. It is sometimes called the Polynesian potato. It is usually boiled and eaten with tea or other beverages, or as the main starch of a meal. [51] However, 2003 taro production in Hawaii was only 5 million pounds (2,300 t), an all-time low since record-keeping began in 1946. Bun long is used for making taro chips. Warm, stagnant water causes basal rotting. Almost all parts are eaten in different dishes. Popular attachment to taro since ancient times is reflected in popular culture, such as in songs and textbooks. Colocasia antiquorum esculenta (L.) Schott. Northern farmers used to plant them to cook the stems and leaves to feed their hogs. The Tharu prepare the leaves in a fried vegetable side-dish that also shows up in Maithili cuisine.[71]. [35] In the case of Kuk Swamp, there is evidence of formalized agriculture emerging by about 10,000 years ago, with evidence of cultivated plots, though which plant was cultivated remains unknown. For differentiation, potatoes are called batata-inglesa (literally, "English potato"), a name used in other regions and sociolects to differentiate it from the batata-doce, "sweet potato", ironic names since both were first cultivated by the indigenous peoples of South America, their native continent, and only later introduced in Europe by the colonizers. The wrapping is inedible ti leaves (Hawaiian: lau ki). ... Common Name: Taro. These taro plants are commonly called khoai ngứa, which literally means "itchy potato". [57], The second child born of Wakea and Hoʻohokukalani was named Hāloa after his older brother. Taro (dalo in Fijian) has been a staple of the Fijian diet for centuries, and its cultural importance is celebrated on Taro Day. "Rain, pests and disease shrink taro production to record low". They are triangular-ovate, sub-rounded and mucronate at the apex, with the tip of the basal lobes rounded or sub-rounded. In Portuguese, it is known as inhame;[9] and in Spanish it is called malanga. One is called khoai sọ, which is smaller in size and more delicious than Khoai môn, and of course, more expensive than khoai môn. Colocasia esculenta is thought to be native to Southern India and Southeast Asia, but is widely naturalised. Native Introduced Native and Introduced Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott (1832) Preferred Common Name. Colocasia esculenta is a tropical plant grown primarily for its edible corms, the root and vegetables. Although pesticides could control both problems to some extent, pesticide use in the loʻi is banned because of the opportunity for chemicals to migrate quickly into streams, and then eventually the sea. The leaves are sometimes cooked into soups and stews. After being peeled completely, it is cooked in one of two ways: cut into small cubes and cooked in broth with fresh coriander and chard and served as an accompaniment to meat stew, or sliced and cooked with minced meat and tomato sauce.[72]. In Jamaica, taro is known as coco, cocoyam and dasheen. First, the soil around the corm is loosened, and then, the corm is pulled up by grabbing the base of the petioles. Wetland fields produce ten to fifteen times more kalo per acre than dry fields. A tall-growing variety of taro is extensively used on the western coast of India to make patrode, patrade, or patrada (lit. It is boiled in a tomato sauce or cooked with meat, beans and chickpeas. Similarly, it is also considered disrespectful to fight in front of an elder and one should not raise their voice, speak angrily, or make rude comments or gestures. taro; Other Scientific Names. Young taro leaves and stems can be eaten after boiling twice to remove the acrid flavor. Click below on a thumbnail map or name for species profiles. 001. The root of the taro plant is often served boiled, accompanied by stewed fish or meat, curried, often with peas and eaten with roti, or in soups. The dessert is traditionally sweetened with water chestnut syrup, and served with ginkgo nuts. Definitions of what constitutes an inhame and a cará vary regionally, but the common understanding in Brazil is that carás are potato-like in shape, while inhames are more oblong. The Kukis calls it bal. It prefers full sun to part shade or filtered sun and can be a great plant for planting at the edge of the understory of a tree or as a border. 2006. These plants are tuberous and are known to be used in some traditional Asian cuisine. The corms are also made into a paste with spices and eaten with rice. Colocasia esculenta (commonly known as taro) is a plant which was probably native to Malaysia. [19][20][21][22][23] Many populations can be commonly found growing near drain ditches and bayous in Houston, Texas. [24][25] Taro is found widely in tropical and subtropical regions of South Asia, East Asia, Southeast Asia, Papua New Guinea, and northern Australia and is highly polymorphic, making taxonomy and distinction between wild and cultivated types difficult. Web. Elephant's Ear is believed to be introduced to southern Africa by Portuguese traders before 1500 - today the starch-rich corms are staple diet in many parts of southern Africa. [37][38] Taro is also identified as one of the staples of Micronesia, from archaeological evidence dating back to the pre-colonial Latte Period (c. 900 - 1521 AD), indicating that it was also carried by Micronesians when they colonized the islands. aquatilis is native to the Kimberley region of Western Australia; variety esculenta is naturalised in Western Australia, the Northern Territory, Queensland and New South Wales. In Puerto Rico and Cuba, and the Dominican Republic it is sometimes called malanga or yautia. Ocumo is the Venezuelan name for malanga, so ocumo chino means "Chinese malanga". It was borrowed in Latin as colocasia, hence the genus name Colocasia. The Atlas of Florida Plants provides a source of information for the distribution of plants within the state and taxonomic information. Beckwith, Martha Warren. In the Philippines taro is usually called gabi, abi, or avi and is widely available throughout the archipelago. [5] It's 芋 (POJ: ō) or 芋頭 (ō-á) in Taiwanese;[6] and vasa in Paiwan, and tali in Amis. It is common to see taro as a flavor in desserts and drinks, such as bubble tea. in cooking process taro is diced and cook along with rice and dried shrimp and sesame oil. Ecological Impact. Colocasia esculenta Taxonomy ID: 4460 (for references in articles please use NCBI:txid4460) current name. [65] Taro is available, either fresh or frozen, in the UK and US in most Asian stores and supermarkets specialising in Bangladeshi or South Asian food. Taro corms are a food staple in African, Oceanic, and South Asian cultures (similar to yams), and taro is believed to have been one of the earliest cultivated plants. Or chino and used to make some popular traditional Taiwanese snack is taro ball, served on ice deep-fried! Lū talo ) the Mediterranean coast, `` the dasheen variety, commonly planted in swamps is! 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