[21] It has multiple meanings in Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism and Jainism. When the Mauryan Emperor Ashoka wanted in the 3rd century BCE to translate the word "Dharma" (he used Prakrit word Dhaṃma) into Greek and Aramaic,[19] he used the Greek word Eusebeia (εὐσέβεια, piety, spiritual maturity, or godliness) in the Kandahar Bilingual Rock Inscription and the Kandahar Greek Edicts, and the Aramaic word Qsyt ("Truth") in the Kandahar Bilingual Rock Inscription. In the Sanskrit epics, this concern is omnipresent. Dharma (Hinduism) For Hindus, dharma is the moral order of the universe and a code of living that embodies the fundamental principles of law, religion, and duty that governs all reality. When capitalized and referred to as the Dharma, the word means the collective teaching of Siddhartha Gautama Buddha, or the Enlightened Buddha. In common parlance, dharma means "right way of living" and "path of rightness". Dharma is an important Hindu, Buddhist and yogic concept, referring to a law or principle which governs the universe. [20], Dharma is a concept of central importance in Indian philosophy and religion. In the Jain tradition, existence consists of jiva (soul, atman) and ajiva (non-soul), the latter consisting of five categories: inert non-sentient atomic matter (pudgalastikaay), space (akasha), time (kala), principle of motion (dharmastikaay), and principle of rest (adharmastikaay). It speaks of the moral laws that each individual should conduct.Dharma rules both the religious and societal chores. The four stages are neither independent nor exclusionary in Hindu dharma. D.C. Verne Dusenbery (2014), in Pashaura Singh and Louis E. Fenech (Editors), Neo-Vedanta#Hindu inclusivism – Hindutva and Dharmic religions, "How did the 'Ramayana' and 'Mahabharata' come to be (and what has 'dharma' got to do with it)? In Hinduism, dharma is the spiritual law for human beings. Jha, Nyayasutras with Vatsyayana Bhasya, 2 vols, Oriental Books (1939). Mark Harvey (1986), The Secular as Sacred?, Modern Asian Studies, 20(2), pp. Paul Horsch[23] suggests Ṛta and dharma are parallel concepts, the former being a cosmic principle, the latter being of moral social sphere; while Māyā and dharma are also correlative concepts, the former being that which corrupts law and moral life, the later being that which strengthens law and moral life.[40][42]. pativedha - when one penetrates the dharma or through experience realises the truth of it. © 2020 Berkley Center for Religion, Peace & World Affairs. [15] According to Brereton,[35] Dharman occurs 63 times in Rig-veda; in addition, words related to Dharman also appear in Rig-veda, for example once as dharmakrt, 6 times as satyadharman, and once as dharmavant, 4 times as dharman and twice as dhariman. [89], The importance of dharma to Indian sentiments is illustrated by India's decision in 1947 to include the Ashoka Chakra, a depiction of the dharmachakra (the "wheel of dharma"), as the central motif on its flag. For example, while Grassmann's[24] translation of Rig-veda identifies seven different meanings of dharma, Karl Friedrich Geldner in his translation of the Rig-veda employs 20 different translations for dharma, including meanings such as "law", "order", "duty", "custom", "quality", and "model", among others. The Mahabharata has inspired the generations through the centuries of human evolution. B. [25], The meaning of the word dharma depends on the context, and its meaning has evolved as ideas of Hinduism have developed through history. P. Thieme, Gedichte aus dem Rig-Veda, Reclam Universal-Bibliothek Nr. citation in. English translated version by Jarrod Whitaker (2004): Horsch, Paul, "From Creation Myth to World Law: the Early History of Dharma". 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