Academia.edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. Poland itself was an early supporter of women’s suffrage. In reality, however, equality of sexes was never realized and contraceptives were of such a bad quality that abortion became an important method of planned parenthood. It is also common to see the phone number of Abortions Without Borders, a Polish organization promoting safe access to abortions, written across the city, in a strong act of defiance.  Demonstrations and happenings take place nationwide, providing a platform to fight for women's rights. As recommended on the Gdziecowwa Telegram channel, protesters have been moving across the capital in groups of no more than five, which whether out of expediency or not, is also rather effective at dividing police efforts. This has once more been presented as a profane action and a desecration, although causing offense is starting to look like the only accusation left against the protesters. In fact this argument is contrary to the feminist ideology and has proved ineffective. , This period, known as the "sixth wave" of Polish feminism, was characterized by considerable propaganda advocating equality of the sexes and by massive women's participation in industrial production, agriculture, and politics. After World War II, the communist state established by Soviets in Poland promoted in propaganda women's emancipation in the family and at work. Although the author asserted the traditional social roles of wife and mother for Polish women, she nevertheless advocated the necessity of education for women as well. The Solidarity trade union movement was dominated by men. The vast majority of demonstrators remained unprovoked, and overall a strong statement of continued presence in the streets of the capital was made. Therefore, while open resistance actions have generally been of a smaller scale and more dispersed due to coronavirus restrictions, they have continued on a “slow burner” and have been more diverse in character. While the women strikers are the most famous members of the Polish opposition movement, KOD, which is technically a civil society organization, is the largest. It published (among many others) articles by Narcyza Żmichowska (the Warsaw leader of "entuzjastki"), who advocated 'emancipation' and education for women. Ten years into the transition, the country has been undergoing major political and economic changes: the new rights to … , The fourth – modernistic – wave of feminism reached Poland around 1900. Formally abortion was legalized in Poland almost 20 years earlier than in the United States and France (but later than in Scandinavian countries), equality of sexes was granted, sexual education was gradually introduced into schools, and contraceptives were legal and subsidised by the state. Jaroslaw Kaczynski, the ruling party leader and Poland’s most powerful politician, had said he wanted even nonviable fetuses to be carried to birth, so they can be given a baptism, a name and a burial. They say it would honor a movement for equality rather than Dmowski, a statesman who had a key role in helping Poland regain national independence in 1918, but who was also an anti-Semite. Under slogans such as “ Militant Polish woman “or “The Polish woman is not yet lost”, and in particular actions and works of art that are strongly provocative, women artists are hijacking patriotic symbols in order to expose their chauvinist and sexist nature, … Invoking the Oct. 30 protests — when the Stalinist Palace of Culture and Science was emblazoned with the red lightning bolt of the Women’s Strike Movement — the former headquarters of the Polish United Workers’ Party, which ruled Poland during the Communist period, received the same adornment as traffic was briefly halted by the mobile blockade. Indeed, in its .] Admittedly women’s suffrage was a new phenomenon in general Polish politics, but within the Jewish community various political movements had allowed full female participation from the turn of the century (in the Zionist movement, for example, since the Second Zionist Congress in 1898) and had championed that cause as part of the new secular kehillah regime that they envisaged. His efforts later bore fruit — in 1897, the first female students graduated from Lwów University. Women's Solidarity The uprising of the Polish women's movement Poland is the only post−socialist country with a women's movement worthy of the name, writes Teresa Kulawik. The Solidarity trade union movement was dominated by men. Domestic violence in Poland is widespread and underreported, according to the Warsaw-based Women’s Rights Center, an organization that works to prevent attacks against women. Women’s rights movement, also called women’s liberation movement, diverse social movement, largely based in the United States, that in the 1960s and ’70s sought equal rights and opportunities and greater personal freedom for women.It coincided with and is recognized as part of the “second wave” of feminism.While the first-wave feminism of the 19th and early 20th centuries focused … Participants of the first Polish Congress of women with disabilities and their allies. ‘Western’ feminism was officially prohibited and was practically absent in the Polish social life until 1989.. The most radical feminist demands were included in Edward Prądzyński’s book O prawach kobiety (On Women’s Rights, 1873), which advocated full equality of the sexes in every domain. According to Eugenia Łoch, Poland experienced three successive waves of feminism in the 19th century; the first and weakest wave came before the November uprising of 1830. In this "wave," it is worth noting, men were principal advocates of the feminist cause: Adam Wiślicki published the article "Niezależność kobiety" ("Woman’s Independence") in Przegląd Naukowy (1870). Polish actress and singer Karolina Micula poses for a portrait wearing a scarf thet reads "Women's Strike - Safe, Free, Legal Abortion" in Warsaw, Poland, Wednesday, Nov. 18, 2020. , In Poland, International Women's Day comes with some practices that Polish feminists find problematic. Triggered sufficiently to throw some flares at an offending apartment displaying symbols of solidarity with the Women’s Strike and LGBTQ+ communities, a group of ultra-nationalists set fire to an entirely different flat storing works of respected Polish artist Stanisław Ignacy Witkiewicz. The second (and stronger) wave took place between the November and January uprisings. (For example, “yesterday” can be changed to “last week,” and “Portland” to “Portland, Ore.” or “here.”). , Maria Janion (1926-) - a renowned feminist and scholar, she gave many lectures on feminist ideals and inspired many new age Polish feminists. She received an honorary degree from the Institute of Literary Research of the Polish Academy of Sciences. The Councils’ organization was also preceded by a very open call online for contributions to what the broader aims of the Women’s Strike movement should be, leading to the clarification of various progressive goals for minority rights, as well as economic assistance in the context of the epidemic. Her written works include the book World Without Women in 2001. Women’s Day, Polish: Dzień Kobiet is celebrated each year on 8th of March. With free run of two of the city center’s main streets leading to Charles de Gaulle roundabout for around half an hour, this seemed rather embarrassing for the security forces. I very much admire how women of all age groups, from teenagers to ‘grannies,’ got together against anti-abortion law in Poland. A different aspect of Polish feminism figures in the poetry and drama (Szofer Archibald (Chauffeur Archibald) 1924 and Egipska pszenica (Egyptian Wheat) 1932) of Maria Pawlikowska-Jasnorzewska. While male writers focused on the ‘mysterious and mystic’ nature of women, female authors (e.g. He is an Assistant Editor of the Journal of Resistance Studies and board member of the European Peace Research Association. Anti-abortion law protesters successfully blockade the main junction of Rondo Charles de Gaulle, 18th November (WNV/ Craig Brown). They're putting themselves on the line every day to oppose the biological oppression of women and Amnesty can't even do them the honour of calling them by their name. Particularly on Mondays, road blockades have continued with other groups such as Extinction Rebellion Poland and Critical Mass cyclists joining in the actions. For November, the Women’s Strike movement has also initiated a global initiative for people to engage in outdoor sports and activities that incorporate the symbols of the anti-abortion law protests, sending in photos to the group for presentation on social media. Once again, the far-right were left tilting at rainbows and silhouettes of women. During the Martial Law period, women stepped into critical positions when the government arrested the top (male) leaders, but their contributions were largely unrecognized. Afterwards, feminist voices were almost silenced (until 1989)[need quotation to verify]; the state considered feminist demands fulfilled, any open discussion about women's problems was forbidden[need quotation to verify], only official (‘materialist’ and ‘Marxist’) feminist texts, mainly focused on taking off women the burden of ‘traditional’ female domestic work, were allowed[need quotation to verify]. The second-wave feminism as a period of feminist activity began in the early 1960s in the United States. Some were holding black umbrellas -- a symbol of Poland's abortion rights movement -- while others had "Women's Strike" posters taped to their … WARSAW — Ignoring the threat of prosecution and the dangers posed by a surge of coronavirus cases, tens of thousands of women outraged by … Agnieszka Graff (1970- ) -an author, human rights activist, and a co founder of Porozumienie Kobiet 8 Marca, she works at Warsaw University's Institute of the Americas and Europe. In efforts to maintain momentum and encourage broader sections of the population to come out and demonstrate, protesters have also traveled out to satellite towns around Warsaw to join local demonstrations, as in Otwock on Nov. 5. Officially, any ‘feminism of Western type’ did not have the right to exist in the Communist state, which had supposedly granted to women every one of the main feminist demands[need quotation to verify]. Black protests are an example of a grassroots social initiative of women in Poland. She didn't have a … In 1918 Polish women gained political rights. the women's movement fits into Polish society in the light of public opinion on the women's movement, women's rights and issues of equality, also looking at how these views evolved over the 1990s, and the reasons behind them.  Róża Melcerowa expressed those feelings: Feminism (...) in fact ended among those nations where de jure had secured its object: social and political equality. … State funding of contraceptives have been strongly suppressed since 1989 . She graduated from the University of Warsaw and worked as a Latin and English teacher until working in politics as the Deputy Marshal of the Sejm of the Republic of Poland from 2011-2015.. Since 2000, Women's Day in Poland is celebrated with feminist demonstration actions called Manifa. But Polish feminism is seemingly undergoing change; new feminist books include Agnieszka Graff’s Świat bez kobiet (World without Women) (2001), which directly points out the contemporary phenomenon of women’s discrimination in Poland; and Kazimiera Szczuka’s Milczenie owieczek (Silence of the Flock) (2004), which passionately defends abortion and often takes positions directly related to the interwar period and radical French feminism, thus renouncing the hitherto dominant ‘moderate’ American argumentative strategies. In her book Kilka słów o kobietach (A Few Words about Women, 1871) she stressed the fundamental human nature of every woman, perverted by society. The recent women's protests in Poland were the first massive feminist protests, involving hundreds of thousands of women, in big and small towns, villages, women of different social backgrounds, activists and those who had never participated in political actions before. Moreover, despite the rhetorical anger at the Catholic Church and some instances of disrupting mass early in the protests, clear instructions have been provided by coordinators on the Telegram channel Gdziecowwa to “bypass churches that will be valiantly defended by certain groups.”, Similar to how protesters started to completely ignore the churches defended by ultra-nationalists, riot police and military police, one of the main groups involved in organizing the anti-abortion protests called for complete disengagement from confrontation with the far-right march through Warsaw on Nov. 11, Poland’s Independence Day. The primary space of communication has become the Internet – especially social media (Facebook). Required fields are marked *. Ewa Dąbrowska-Szulc expressed the necessity of changing the Polish feminist stance as well: "We [feminists] have lost a lot by these lessons of an appeased language we are still giving each other".  On 1 July 1921 the Act on the Change of Certain Provisions of the Civil Law Pertaining to Women's Rights was enacted by the Sejm, to address the most obvious inequalities for women who were married. Eva Kotchever (1891-1943) -an activist, owner of the famous Eve's Hangout in Greenwich Village, deported from the United States for "obscenity", died at Auschwitz. Even so, delays to the publishing of the law cannot be considered a victory, as many opponents see it as a cynical move to dampen the protests. "What they're reading in Poland". Opposition to new anti-abortion law sparks Poland’s largest protests in decades, general decline in their own popular support, the phone number of Abortions Without Borders, the only accusation left against the protesters, global initiative for people to engage in outdoor sports and activities, yet the bold actions of the grannies shows the situation is more complex, plight of artists and creatives during the coronavirus, In threatening to cut funding to educational facilities, there have been cases of taxi and public transport drivers participating, who have been at the forefront of many demonstrations, there seems a genuine effort to make them inclusive toward younger and diverse members, continue their own initiatives on the ground, broader aims of the Women’s Strike movement should be, strike by women was held on Wednesday Oct. 28. By 1913, the women’s suffrage movement in the US had long been brewing. . And the protests helped to forge new relationships too. The All-Poland Women's Strike (Polish: Ogólnopolski Strajk Kobiet, OSK), is a women's rights social movement in Poland, established in September 2016. After 123 years of foreign domination, Poland regained its independence on Nov. 11, 1918. According to the TASS reporter from the scene, several hundred people joined the demonstration in Warsaw. Thursday, September 24, 2020, 1:00 p.m. EDT. Narkowicz, Kasia, and Konrad Pędziwiatr. It was set up in protest against the rejection by the Sejm of the Polish Parliament of the bill "Save Women", which was considered by the Sejm in parallel to the project "Stop to Abortion". Women taking to the streets in Poland against this latest attack on abortion rights brings us back full circle to the Polish streets again where the movement first began. A strike by women was held on Wednesday Oct. 28, and there is the legacy of the women’s strike in 2016 when women also withdrew their domestic and unpaid labor. Julia Minc (wife of Hilary Minc) was president of the Polish Press Agency, 1944–54. A major figure in Polish feminism in this period and later was Gabriela Zapolska, whose writings included classics such as the novel, Kaśka Kariatyda (Cathy the Caryatid, 1885–86). Some symbolic actions have also been engaged in, for example hanging a large banner from the cross at the top of Poland’s Great Giewont mountain on Nov. 8. His PhD assessed the methods of resistance during the 2011 Tunisian Revolution. Poland's decision to leave treaty aimed at preventing violence against women sparks criticism In one video, shared on social media, officers can be … The Women's Liberation Movement was criticized by some feminists -- both black and white -- for its exclusion of nonwhite, working class women. In the same newspaper, Aleksander Świętochowski criticized Hoffmanowa's books, which he said "transform women into slaves." "Poland Feminist Genealogy". Rather than being cowed, security force violence is likely to exacerbate matters in the coming days. US Sport. During communist rule, Polish women enjoyed liberties (abortion, labour market, childcare) that were different from the West. But this year, staying at home meant that when responsibility for far-right violence was inevitably pinned on “left-wing” agitators and the “angry women” regardless, the police themselves rejected this. What unites women is opposition to government policy. The movement to reclaim International Women's Day is focused on viewing … The women’s rights convention at Seneca Falls, New York, where the Declaration of Sentiments was read , … Please keep comments constructive and relevant to the post. Polish women went on strike and tens of thousands took to the streets to protest a nearly complete ban on abortion, as a mass movement standoff against a … The sign read: “Women, do not disturb us. History The earliest Women’s Day was held on 28th February 1909, […] A post on the Gdziecowwa Telegram channel on Nov. 12 stressed the “leaderless” nature of the demonstrations. Poland granted to women the right to vote in 1918. She works at the Södertörn University in Stockholm.  The first four early periods coincided with the foreign partitions of Poland, which resulted in the elimination of the sovereign Polish state for 123 years. In threatening to cut funding to educational facilities permitting their students to join the protests, the Education Minister Przemysław Czarnek has also succeeded in alienating many teachers and university tutors. There are just over 1,000 legal abortions every year in Poland, but women's groups say the number of abortions carried out illegally or abroad could be between 80,000 and 120,000. The ban on abortions has appeared immovable. 1918: Women are given full suffrage in Latvia, Poland, and Estonia. Poland experienced the third (and strongest) wave after 1870, under preponderant Western influence. Zofia Nałkowska was especially active in the Polish women's movement. Again, in circumstances where physical distancing is important and large-scale action can be framed as reckless and irresponsible, being at the top of a mountain quite simply achieves isolation while perpetuating visibility of the issue. In Poland, International Women's Daycomes with some practices that Polish feminists find problematic. However, there is a sense that recent events in Belarus may be on the minds of protesters, security forces and the government — particularly when Poland has been very accommodating to dissidents and ordinary Belarusians escaping repression — with the “bad optics” of Lukashenko’s security forces attacking women who have been at the forefront of many demonstrations. Less than three weeks later, on Nov. 28, the new Polish government granted to women the right to vote. Waging Nonviolence partners with other organizations and publishes their work.  Post-communist Poland experienced the seventh wave of feminism and was suddenly confronted with concepts of Western second-wave feminism that at once met with fierce opposition from the Roman Catholic Church. Harriet Agerholm @HarrietAgerholm. In Poland during the years 1940–1989, feminism in general, and second-wave feminism in particular, were practically absent[need quotation to verify]. What were the initial aims of your movement and your views on working with allies? This article looks at Polish women's movements in the context of how women's and social movements are defined theoretically and in the light of the development of the women's movement in Poland historically. Communist poet Adam Ważyk realistically described situation of workers (Including the female ones) in his Poem for adults. Some businesses in Poland close for the day as thousands of women go on strike to protest against proposals for a total ban on abortion. We prefer with a note at the top of the article that says it originally appeared on Waging Nonviolence with a link back to the original page where it appeared. Remarks on the history of women's emancipation in modern Poland – A webinar with dr. Dobrochna Kałwa of the University of Warsaw. Women's Movements and Democratization Initially, research on democratization paid little or no attention to women's participation, but studies of the role of women's movements in democratic transitions have exploded Beneath the headlines and eye-catching activities, such actions in future could prove no less of a challenge to patriarchal norms. As Poland’s women’s movement celebrates a tentative victory, LGBTI activists are still fighting PiS’s ugly culture war . The predominance of women or older people in actions of course does not automatically preclude security force violence against them. Krzywicka and Tadeusz Żeleński (‘Boy’) both promoted planned parenthood, sexual education, rights to divorce and abortion, and strict equality of sexes. Poland already had one of Europe’s most restrictive abortion laws, and the ruling would mean that the only legal reasons for abortion would be rape, incest or if the woman’s life is in danger. Thousands of women are expected to go on strike across Poland in protest against a new law that would effectively ban abortion. Jucewicz, Agnieszka (March 2003 - April 2003). "Polish Feminists: Forging a Sisterhood". There is an infamous story in Poland about a sign at the shipyard in Gdansk where the trade union movement Solidarity got started in 1980. In Eliza Orzeszkowa’s literary output, the motif of women's emancipation is particularly important. 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